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英语基本语法干货:英语5种基本时态汇总

作者:简单生活 来源:本站 发表时间:2019-05-28 15:25:41 查看:

第一种: 一般现在时——表示一般性,经常性的动作或一般性事实。

1、含有be动词的句子

  He is a teacher.

  The girl is very beautiful.

  Tim and Jack are students.

  ★变疑问句将be动词移到句首

  Is he a teacher?

  Is the girl very beautiful?

  Are Tim and Jack students?

  ★变否定句在be动词后面加not

  He is not a teacher.

  The girl is not very beautiful.

  Tim and Jack are not students.

  ★肯定回答及否定回答

  Yes, he is. / No, he is not.

  Yes, she is. / No, she is not.

  Yes, they are. / No, they are not.

2、不含有be动词的句子,即含有一般动词的句子。  

1)第三人称单数及单数名词

  He likes books.

  She likes him.

  The dog likes bones.

  ★变疑问句在句首加does, 动词变为原型

  Does he like books?

  Does she like him?

  Does the dog like bones?

  ★变否定句在主语及动词之间加doesn't, 动词变为原型,原句中的动词不再有第三人称变化。

  He doesn't like books.

  She doesn't like him.

  The dog doesn't like bones.

  ★肯定回答及否定回答:

  Yes, he does. / No, he doesn't.

  Yes, she does. / No, she doesn't

  Yes, it does. / No, it doesn't.

  注意:第三人称单数形式一般在动词后面加S,不要和名词复数混淆,变否定句或疑问句时名词复数没有任何变化。

2)其他人称及复数名词

  I want to have a bath.

  We have some meat.

  The students like smart teachers.

  ★变疑问句在句首加do

  Do you want to have a bath?

  Do we have any meat?

  Do the students like smart teachers?

  ★变否定句在主语和动词之间加don't.

  You don't want to have a bath.

  We don't have any meat.

  The students don't like smart teachers.

  ★肯定回答及否定回答

  Yes, I do. / No, I don't.

  Yes, we do. / No, we don't

  Yes, they do. / No, they don't.


第二种:现在进行时——表示现在正在进行的动作

1)构成:主语+be动词+动词的现在分词+其它成分

  We are having lunch.

  He is reading a book.

  The dog is running after a cat.

  The boys are swimming across the river.

  ★变疑问句将be动词移到句首

  Are we having lunch?

  Is he reading a book?

  Is the dog running after a cat?

  Are the boys swimming across the river?

  ★变否定句在be动词后面加 not

  We are not having lunch.

  He is not reading a book.

  The dog is not running after a cat.

  The boys are not swimming across the river.

  ★特殊疑问句:what, which, how, where, who, etc. 

2)疑问词+动词+主语+现在分词

  What are you doing?

  What is she doing?

  What is the dog doing?  

3)表示状态,思想,感情和感觉的动词不能表示正在进行的动作:

  1. 表示感觉,感官的词

  see, hear, like, love, want

  2. have, has当“拥有”讲时没有进行时


第三种: 一般过去时——表示过去发生的动作或事件

1、常和表示过去的时间状语连用,如yesterday, last night, the day before yesterday, 3 days ago...

  含有be动词的句子,将be动词变为过去式。am, is的过去式为was, are的过去式为were:

  I was at the butcher's.

  You were a student a year ago.

  The teacher was very beautiful ten years ago.

  ★变疑问句将be动词移动到句首

  Were you at the butcher's?

  Were you a student a year ago?

  Was the teacher very beautiful ten years ago?

  ★变否定句在be动词后面加not

  I was not at the butcher's.

  You were not a student a year ago.

  The teacher was not very beautiful ten years ago.

  ★肯定回答否定回答

  Yes, I was. / No, I was not.

  Yes, you were. / No, you were not.

  Yes, he/she was. / No, he/she was not.

  ★特殊疑问句

  What did you do?(必背)

  不含有be动词的句子,将动词变为过去式:

  I finished my homework yesterday.

  The boy went to a restaurant.

  The Sawyers lived at King Street a year ago.

  ★变疑问句在句首加did,动词变为原型

  Did you finish your homework yesterday?

  Did the boy go to a restaurant?

  Did the Sawyers live at King Street a year ago?

  ★变否定句在主语和动词之间加did not

  I did not finish my homework yesterday.

  The boy did not go to a restaurant.

  The Sawyers did not live at King Street a year ago.

  ★肯定回答及否定回答

  Yes, I did. / No, I didn't.

  Yes, he did. / No, he didn't.

  Yes, they did. / No, they did not.


第四种:现在完成时——构成:主语+助动词have, has+过去分词   

1) 表示过去发生的和现在有某种联系的动作,常和just, usually, already, since等时间副词连用。

    I have just had lunch. (饱了,不用再吃了。)

  He has had a cup of tea.(不渴了,不用再喝。)

  They have already had their holiday. (不能再度假了。)

  The boy has already read the book. (已经知道书的内容了,不用再看了。)  

2) 询问别人是否做过某事一般用现在完成时:

  Have you finished your homework?

  Have you been to Beijing?

  Have he seen the film?  

3) 表示开始于过去并持续到现在的动作

  I have lived in Beijing for twenty years.

  I have worked for this school for 1 year.  

4) 表示一种经历,经验:去过…地方,做过…事情,经历过…事情

  I have never had a bath.

  I have never seen a film.

  I have never been to cinema.

  I have ever been to Paris.

  Have been to表示去过,have gone to 表示去了

  I have been to London.(人已经回来)

  He has gone to London.(人还在那里)

5) 表示一种结果, 一般不和时间副词联用

  I have lost my pen.

  I have hurt myself.

  He has become a teacher.

  She has broken my heart.

  句型变化:

  ★变疑问句将助动词移到句首,变否定句在助动词后面加not.

  Have you lost your pen? I have not lost my pen.

  ★肯定回答及否定回答

  Yes, I have. / No, I have not.

  ★特殊疑问句

  What have you done?

  What has he done?  

一般过去时与现在完成时的区别:

  凡是有明确的表示过去的时间状语的句子为过去时。

  注意:有些动词表示的动作有一个终点,不能再延续,因此不能和表示一段时间状语连用。

    错:I’ve left Beijing for 3 days.

  对:I left Beijing 3 days ago. I have been away from being for 3 days.


第五种:一般将来时——表示将来将要发生的动作, 

经常和tomorrow, next year, the day after tomorrow, the year after the next, in five hours' time, etc. 表示将来的词联用。

结构:主语+助动词will+动词原形

  I will go to America tomorrow.

  The pilot will fly to Japan the month after the next.

  Jack will move into his new house tomorrow morning.

  ★变疑问句将助动词移到句首

  Will you go to America tomorrow?

  Will the pilot fly to Japan the month after the next?

  Will Jack move into his new house tomorrow morning?

  ★变否定句在助动词后面加not

  I will not go to America tomorrow.

  The pilot will not fly to Japan the month after the next.

  Jack will not move into his new house tomorrow morning.

  ★肯定回答及否定回答

  Yes, I will. / No, I will not.

  Yes, he/she will. / No, he/she will not.

  Yes, he will. / No, he will not.

  ★特殊疑问句

  What will you do?


第一种: 一般现在时——表示一般性,经常性的动作或一般性事实。

1、含有be动词的句子

  He is a teacher.

  The girl is very beautiful.

  Tim and Jack are students.

  ★变疑问句将be动词移到句首

  Is he a teacher?

  Is the girl very beautiful?

  Are Tim and Jack students?

  ★变否定句在be动词后面加not

  He is not a teacher.

  The girl is not very beautiful.

  Tim and Jack are not students.

  ★肯定回答及否定回答

  Yes, he is. / No, he is not.

  Yes, she is. / No, she is not.

  Yes, they are. / No, they are not.

2、不含有be动词的句子,即含有一般动词的句子。  

1)第三人称单数及单数名词

  He likes books.

  She likes him.

  The dog likes bones.

  ★变疑问句在句首加does, 动词变为原型

  Does he like books?

  Does she like him?

  Does the dog like bones?

  ★变否定句在主语及动词之间加doesn't, 动词变为原型,原句中的动词不再有第三人称变化。

  He doesn't like books.

  She doesn't like him.

  The dog doesn't like bones.

  ★肯定回答及否定回答:

  Yes, he does. / No, he doesn't.

  Yes, she does. / No, she doesn't

  Yes, it does. / No, it doesn't.

  注意:第三人称单数形式一般在动词后面加S,不要和名词复数混淆,变否定句或疑问句时名词复数没有任何变化。

2)其他人称及复数名词

  I want to have a bath.

  We have some meat.

  The students like smart teachers.

  ★变疑问句在句首加do

  Do you want to have a bath?

  Do we have any meat?

  Do the students like smart teachers?

  ★变否定句在主语和动词之间加don't.

  You don't want to have a bath.

  We don't have any meat.

  The students don't like smart teachers.

  ★肯定回答及否定回答

  Yes, I do. / No, I don't.

  Yes, we do. / No, we don't

  Yes, they do. / No, they don't.


第二种:现在进行时——表示现在正在进行的动作

1)构成:主语+be动词+动词的现在分词+其它成分

  We are having lunch.

  He is reading a book.

  The dog is running after a cat.

  The boys are swimming across the river.

  ★变疑问句将be动词移到句首

  Are we having lunch?

  Is he reading a book?

  Is the dog running after a cat?

  Are the boys swimming across the river?

  ★变否定句在be动词后面加 not

  We are not having lunch.

  He is not reading a book.

  The dog is not running after a cat.

  The boys are not swimming across the river.

  ★特殊疑问句:what, which, how, where, who, etc. 

2)疑问词+动词+主语+现在分词

  What are you doing?

  What is she doing?

  What is the dog doing?  

3)表示状态,思想,感情和感觉的动词不能表示正在进行的动作:

  1. 表示感觉,感官的词

  see, hear, like, love, want

  2. have, has当“拥有”讲时没有进行时


第三种: 一般过去时——表示过去发生的动作或事件

1、常和表示过去的时间状语连用,如yesterday, last night, the day before yesterday, 3 days ago...

  含有be动词的句子,将be动词变为过去式。am, is的过去式为was, are的过去式为were:

  I was at the butcher's.

  You were a student a year ago.

  The teacher was very beautiful ten years ago.

  ★变疑问句将be动词移动到句首

  Were you at the butcher's?

  Were you a student a year ago?

  Was the teacher very beautiful ten years ago?

  ★变否定句在be动词后面加not

  I was not at the butcher's.

  You were not a student a year ago.

  The teacher was not very beautiful ten years ago.

  ★肯定回答否定回答

  Yes, I was. / No, I was not.

  Yes, you were. / No, you were not.

  Yes, he/she was. / No, he/she was not.

  ★特殊疑问句

  What did you do?(必背)

  不含有be动词的句子,将动词变为过去式:

  I finished my homework yesterday.

  The boy went to a restaurant.

  The Sawyers lived at King Street a year ago.

  ★变疑问句在句首加did,动词变为原型

  Did you finish your homework yesterday?

  Did the boy go to a restaurant?

  Did the Sawyers live at King Street a year ago?

  ★变否定句在主语和动词之间加did not

  I did not finish my homework yesterday.

  The boy did not go to a restaurant.

  The Sawyers did not live at King Street a year ago.

  ★肯定回答及否定回答

  Yes, I did. / No, I didn't.

  Yes, he did. / No, he didn't.

  Yes, they did. / No, they did not.


第四种:现在完成时——构成:主语+助动词have, has+过去分词   

1) 表示过去发生的和现在有某种联系的动作,常和just, usually, already, since等时间副词连用。

    I have just had lunch. (饱了,不用再吃了。)

  He has had a cup of tea.(不渴了,不用再喝。)

  They have already had their holiday. (不能再度假了。)

  The boy has already read the book. (已经知道书的内容了,不用再看了。)  

2) 询问别人是否做过某事一般用现在完成时:

  Have you finished your homework?

  Have you been to Beijing?

  Have he seen the film?  

3) 表示开始于过去并持续到现在的动作

  I have lived in Beijing for twenty years.

  I have worked for this school for 1 year.  

4) 表示一种经历,经验:去过…地方,做过…事情,经历过…事情

  I have never had a bath.

  I have never seen a film.

  I have never been to cinema.

  I have ever been to Paris.

  Have been to表示去过,have gone to 表示去了

  I have been to London.(人已经回来)

  He has gone to London.(人还在那里)

5) 表示一种结果, 一般不和时间副词联用

  I have lost my pen.

  I have hurt myself.

  He has become a teacher.

  She has broken my heart.

  句型变化:

  ★变疑问句将助动词移到句首,变否定句在助动词后面加not.

  Have you lost your pen? I have not lost my pen.

  ★肯定回答及否定回答

  Yes, I have. / No, I have not.

  ★特殊疑问句

  What have you done?

  What has he done?  

一般过去时与现在完成时的区别:

  凡是有明确的表示过去的时间状语的句子为过去时。

  注意:有些动词表示的动作有一个终点,不能再延续,因此不能和表示一段时间状语连用。

    错:I’ve left Beijing for 3 days.

  对:I left Beijing 3 days ago. I have been away from being for 3 days.


第五种:一般将来时——表示将来将要发生的动作, 

经常和tomorrow, next year, the day after tomorrow, the year after the next, in five hours' time, etc. 表示将来的词联用。

结构:主语+助动词will+动词原形

  I will go to America tomorrow.

  The pilot will fly to Japan the month after the next.

  Jack will move into his new house tomorrow morning.

  ★变疑问句将助动词移到句首

  Will you go to America tomorrow?

  Will the pilot fly to Japan the month after the next?

  Will Jack move into his new house tomorrow morning?

  ★变否定句在助动词后面加not

  I will not go to America tomorrow.

  The pilot will not fly to Japan the month after the next.

  Jack will not move into his new house tomorrow morning.

  ★肯定回答及否定回答

  Yes, I will. / No, I will not.

  Yes, he/she will. / No, he/she will not.

  Yes, he will. / No, he will not.

  ★特殊疑问句

  What will you do?


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